Complexity Of Kinship: The Past and Present

Introduction
In the 20th century, evolution has indeed brought about much complexity to the life of industrial society as compared to the life of foraging society. However, this does not necessarily equates that everything in industrial society is more complex than a foraging society. To illustrate my point, I will be comparing the kinship system between Ju/'hoansi and Singaporean as representatives from foraging society and industrial society respectively.

Definition of kinship
Kinship is an ideology of human relationship and is conventionally defined as relationships between people based on marriage or descent.

Kinship system of Ju/hoansi and its complexity

To the Ju/'hoansi, kinship is extremely important because it forms the basic principle for organizing social relationship and it is this principle that educates them how to interact with each other. In addition, kinship is a powerful tool that allows them to gain access to resources for survival and waterhole. The Ju/hoansi kinship is governed by three layers of complexity in their system, which may not always complement with each other. The first kinship system is based on normal kinship. Through this system, he or she will apply the principle of alternate generation to determine who he or she engages a joking or avoidance relationship, hence defining his or her social behavior.The second kinship system is based on name relationship whereby names are inherited from ancestors. The Ju/hoansi makes extensive use of personal names and name relationship to create a new horizon of kinship. For instances, when a common name is shared between two individuals, the kin of one individual now becomes the kin of the other person.The third kinship system is based on the principle of Wi, when there is uncertainty, the senior member will determine the kin relations of the junior.
Marriage is affected by kinship because one individual faces restriction in finding the idea partner as he or she must not marry a partner with the same name as a close relative. For instances, if my grandmother is named Jenny and my partner is also named jenny, marrying my partner will be equivalent to marrying my grandmother- a forbidden situation.
The general postmartial residence pattern of newly married couples is classified as matrilocal. This pattern is described where by the married couple will move in to the bride's family. However, upon completion of bridal service, the married couple will be able to move to either the groom's family or settle into a new household.

Kinship system of Singaporeans and its complexity
In a modern society, the importance and value of kinship has much depreciated. The role of kinship in organizing the society has been displaced by institutions formed on other bases, and socioeconomic or political institutions are separated from kinship. The kinship system of Singaporean is a much simplified version as compared to the Ju/'hoansi. Firstly, we do not practice the principle of alternating generation as the avoidance relationship seems to dominate our society as families become more nucleated. In general, we show respect ( avoidance) towards people who are older in terms of age rather than family status. Using my family as an example, my siblings and I will be mindful of our manners in front of the older generations. Even though we have a uncle (mother's brother) who is younger( in terms of age) than us ,we interact him with a joking mentality. Secondly, we do not practice naming and name relationships. Everyone has a name that is unique and it is a form of identity telling us who we are. Our name which are given by our parents, we only adopt our surnames from our father. For instances, my surname 'Seetoh' is inherited from my father's ancestor. In the aspect of modern marriage, we have the freedom and rights for choosing our ideal marriage partners based on our personal criteria.
The general postmarital residence pattern of married couples in Singapore is classified as neolocal. This pattern is described whereby the married couple will move out into a new location, living independently of their parents Kinship system has evolved in societies different too.
As in our modern society, there is a new form of kinship known as Fictive kinship. It is not based on blood relations but based on a common interest. This concept groups a 'family' of people who shares common interest rather than blood relations. For instances, in the context of a church setting, we address our pastor as our 'father' and also in normal daily life we do address people with terms such as ' aunty' and 'uncle' suggesting a degree of closeness.

Conclusion
In conclusion, the complexity of the kinship is dependent on the importance of kinship in constructing human social behavior, organizing the society and affecting the society in aspects such as marriage and residence.To the Ju/'hoansi, kinship is extremely important because it forms the basic principle for organizing social relationship and it is this principle that educates them how to interact with each other. On the other hand, in a modern society, the importance and value of kinship has much depreciated. The role of kinship in organizing the society has been displaced by institutions formed on other bases, and socioeconomic or political institutions are separated from kinship. We act according to law and we do not put strings to achieve a better life since we are capable of being financially stable and independent on ourselves.